The Mayo-Portland Participation Index: A brief and psychometrically sound measure of brain injury outcome. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75(5), 364-369. While the authors do provide data for comparison, it is not truly normative. The FSS scale is a self-report scale that is easy to administer and can be completed quickly with minimal effort (Burger et al., 2010; LaChapelle & Finlayson, 1998). Personality and Individual Differences, 25(5), 911-916. The responses to the last two subscales (emotion and physical problems) are reverse scored to correspond with the satisfaction items. Reliability of ratings on the Glasgow Outcome Scales from in-person and telephone structured interviews. Rehabilitation Psychology, 57(2), 159-166. Tate, R. L., Godbee, K., & Sigmundsdottir, L. (2013). Johnston, M., Pollard, B., & Hennessey, P. (2000). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 167(11), 675-684. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75(2), 156-163. Schonberger, M., & Ponsford, J. (2006). DEFINITIONS Acquired brain injuries (ABI) occur when there is an event that results in damage to the brain Rush, B. K., Malec, J. F., Moessner, A. M., & Brown, A. W. (2004). Journal of Trauma, 52(3), 527-534. Knowing a history of an Acquired Brain Injury can help us provide the right support. Glasgow Outcome Scale and Disability Rating Scale: comparative usefulness in following recovery in traumatic head injury. The mean can be computed when there are some missing responses, but should not be calculated if more than one third of responses on the scale are missing. Stroke, 34(2), 488-493. Table 17.5 Characteristics of the Agitated Behavior Scale, Table 17.7 Characteristics of the Berg Balance Scale, Table 17.8 Berg Balance Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.10 Community Balance and Mobility Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.9 Characteristics of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale, Table 17.11 Characteristics of the Community Integration Questionnaire, Table 17.12 Community Integration Questionnaire Evaluation Summary, Table 17.13 Characteristics of the Disability Rating Scale, Table 17.14 Disability Rating Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.15 Characteristics of the Fatigue Severity Scale, Table 17.16 Fatigue Severity Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.17 Characteristics of Functional Independence Measure, Table 17.18 Functional Independence Measure Evaluation Summary, Table 17.19 Characteristics of the Functional Independence Measure+Functional Assessment Measure, Table 17.20 Functional Independence Measure+Functional Assessment Measure Evaluation Summary, Table 17.21 Characteristics of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, Table 17.22 Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test Evaluation Summary, Table 17.23 Characteristics of the Glasgow Coma Scale, Table 17.24 Glasgow Coma Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.25 Characteristics of the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Extended Version, Table 17.26 Glasgow Outcome Scale/Extended Evaluation Summary, Table 17.27 Characteristics of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Table 17.28 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.29 Characteristics of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, Table 17.30 Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Evaluation Summary, Table 17.31 Characteristics of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, Table 17.32 Short Form 36 Evaluation Summary, Table 17.33 Characteristics of the Mini Mental State Examination, Table 17.34 Mini Mental State Examination Evaluation Summary, Table 17.35 Characteristics of the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory, Table 17.36 Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory Evaluation Summary, Table 17.37 Characteristics of the Rancho Los Amigos Level of Cognitive Functioning Scale, Table 17.38 Rancho Los Amigos Level of Cognitive Functioning Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.39 Characteristics of the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Table 17.40 Satisfaction with Life Scale Evaluation Summary, Table 17.41 Characteristics of the Quality of Life after Traumatic Brain Injury, Table 17.42 Quality of Life after Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation Summary, 17.11 Glasgow Outcome Scale/Extended Glasgow Coma Scale, 17.12 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, 17.13 Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, 17.14 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, 17.16 Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory, 17.17 Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale, 17.18 Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), 17.19 Quality of Life after Traumatic Brain Injury, 17.3 Community Balance and Mobility Scale, 17.9 Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale. Outcomes after head injury: level of agreement between subjects and their informants. Neuropsychological, psychosocial and vocational correlates of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months post-injury: a study of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 120(3-4), 132-135. Seel, R. T., Kreutzer, J. S., & Sander, A. M. (1997). Training and education in administration of the test is a pre-requisite for good levels of inter-rater reliability (Cavanagh et al., 2000) (stroke). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a form of nondegenerative acquired brain injury, resulting from an external physical force to the head (e.g., fall) or other mechanisms of displacement of the brain within the skull (e.g., blast injuries). Scale items are at the 6th to 10th grade reading level, which makes it comprehensible to most adults (W.  Pavot & E. Diener, 1993) The scale has been evaluated in several cultures and has been translated into several languages including Dutch, Taiwanese, Spanish, French, Russian, Korean, Hebrew, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese. The UK FIM+FAM: development and evaluation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77(12), 1226-1232. Items are organized into eight dimensions or subscales which include physical functioning, role limitations: physical, emotional, bodily pain, social functioning, general mental health, and general health perceptions. Callahan, C. D., Young, P. L., & Barisa, M. T. (2005). Interrater reliability of Glasgow Coma Scale scores in the emergency department. Psychological Reports, 92(2), 551-554. This can cause bruising of the brain tissue, called contusion. It focuses on the impact of cognitive dysfunction on arousal and overall behaviour, but does not provide information regarding specific domains of cognitive impairment (Labi et al., 1998). Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(11), 2184-2188. (2009). Fabrigoule, C., Lechevallier, N., Crasborn, L., Dartigues, J.-F., & Orgogozo, J.-M. (2003). (1987). (1996). Patients are assigned to one of five possible outcome categories: 1) death, 2) persistent vegetative state, 3) severe disability, 4) moderate disability, and 5) good recovery (Jennett & Bond, 1975). (2005), despite the availability of the scale, agitation remains unmeasured by most who work with the TBI population. The temporal satisfaction with life scale. Brain Injury, 12(8), 649-659. The structure and stability of the Functional Independence Measure. Mini mental state examination in geriatric stroke patients. Items are rated for frequency of occurrence on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (always). Maas, A. I., Braakman, R., Schouten, H. J., Minderhoud, J. M., & van Zomeren, A. H. (1983). For these reasons, we developed the Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury- Lifetime (BAT-L) (Fortier et al., 2014). American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(12), 896-902. Brain Injury, 7(4), 309-317. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(8), 1007-1015. Bakay, R. A., & Ward, A. (2013). The Satisfaction with Life Scale can be accessed for no cost at www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/lifesatisfactionscale.pdf. Levels of impairment have also been classified as none (24-30), mild (18-24), and severe (0-17) (Tombaugh & McIntyre, 1992). Clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. These criteria, including some additional considerations described below, were applied to each of the outcome measures reviewed in this chapter. The tools were chosen based on a 3-step process. Comparisons of agitation associated with Alzheimer’s disease and acquired brain in jury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 18(7), 341-347. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10(4), 54-63. An updated literature review. Rating scale analysis of the Agitated Behavior Scale. Hall, K. M. (1997). Journal of Personality Assessment, 70(2), 340-354. Administration of the scale may be via direct observation or interview(Hall et al., 1993)  (Hall et al., 1993). (1996). Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). When necessary, collateral sources of information may be used to complete the ratings (Rappaport et al., 1982). Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14(1), 91-96. Descriptions of what corresponds to successful item performance at each rating level are not precise and subscales do not clearly identify areas for intervention (Brazil, 1992). Acquired Brain Injury Acquired brain injuries (ABIs) aren't caused by trauma. Development of the community balance and mobility scale for clients with traumatic brain injury. The Boston Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury-Lifetime (BAT-L) has become a gold standard for assessing mild TBI specific to Veterans. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Causes of ABI include disease, blows to the head, alcohol and drug use, or oxygen deprivation. The Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) is based on an earlier scale, the Portland Adaptability Inventory (Lezak, 1987). The CBMS is not appropriate for use on individuals with severe ABIs in which ambulation is affected because the CBMS was developed for people who are ambulatory (Innes et al. www.tbi-impact.org/cde/mod_templates/12_F_01_GOSE.pdf. It is comprised of 36 items drawn from the original 245 items generated by that study (McHorney et al., 1993; Ware & Sherbourne, 1992). Belmont, A., Agar, N., Hugeron, C., Gallais, B., & Azouvi, P. (2006). Collapsing rating scales to eliminate infrequently endorsed categories and creating a common pass/fail point for each item resulted in changes to the ordering of item difficulty, reduced tendencies for ceiling effects and an improved functional definition of the 45/56 cut-off point (Kornetti et al., 2004). Traumatic brain injury. (2013) discovered that the CIQ is most effective when used to assess Caucasians in comparison to Black and Hispanic populations. Wood-Dauphinee, S., Berg, K., Bravo, G., & Williams, J. I. Has the measure been used in an ABI/TBI population? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(8), 666-671. WHO. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. The rating form available for download has included the ½ point scoring option. After making adjustment for items appearing in more than one index, subscale raw scores are summed to provide an overall adaptability index score. Udekwu, P., Kromhout-Schiro, S., Vaslef, S., Baker, C., & Oller, D. (2004). They have not been referenced to non-ABI samples. Scores for each subscale (anxiety and depression) range from 0 to 21 with scores categorized as follows: normal 0-7, mild 8-10, moderate 11-14, and severe 15-21. Evaluation and treatment of balance in the elderly: A review of the efficacy of the Berg Balance Test and Tai Chi Quan. The DRS assesses only general rather than specific function or functional change (Hall & Johnston, 1994). Each interview incorporates a way to include information regarding pre-injury status, thereby providing a means for determining the effect of the sequelae of head injury on outcome, separate from the effects of pre-existing conditions or circumstances (Pettigrew et al., 1998; Wilson et al., 1998). Coping with the consequences of acquired brain injury can be difficult for everyone, including family members. Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide. The HADS requires the individual to respond to the question in relation to how they felt in the past week, so it is reasonable to re-administer the test again but only at weekly intervals. The BBS requires a minimal detectable change of 6 points at a 90% confidence interval (Stevenson, 2001). PTA is considered to have ended if a score ≥75 is achieved on three consecutive administrations (Novack et al., 2000; Wade, 1992; Zafonte et al., 1997). (1999)Sander et al. It may be downloaded from http://tbims.org/combi. No common interpretation exists for BBS scores, their relationship to mobility status, and the use of mobility aides (Wee et al., 2003). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 66(4), 480-484. Current medical research and opinion, 19(7), 603-608. It was recommended that the childcare item and the frequency of shopping item both be removed. In general, items are rated on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4 where 0 represents the most favourable outcome, no problem or independence, and 4 represents the presence of severe problems. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 12(6), 74-91. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 968. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2(1), 57-69. Young, B., Rapp, R. P., Norton, J. Some items measure the frequency with which activities are performed, while others measure the assistance or supervision required in order to perform an activity (Dijkers, 1997; Zhang et al., 2002). Pastorek et al. The European Brain Injury Consortium Survey of Head Injuries. Scores for the entire scale (emotional distress) range from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating more distress. Administering the scale requires little time and can be completed in less than 30 minutes. Limitations of the SF-36 in a sample of nursing home residents. When considering classification of the severity of an acquired brain injury, it is important to note that severity is in not always predictive of the outcome. Specifically designed for the evaluation of individuals during the post-acute period following ABI, the scale was developed to provide a representation of the sequelae of ABI through the use of key indicators of abilities, activities and social participation (Malec, 2004b). Older respondents identified these questions as pertinent for much younger people and not relevant to their own situation. Inness, E., Howe, J., Verrier, M.C., Williams, J.I. Confirming and expanding the usefulness of the Extended Satisfaction With Life Scale (ESWLS). Physical Therapy, 79(10), 939-948. Dorman et al. Brain Injury, 20(12), 1235-1239. de Koning, I., Dippel, D. W., van Kooten, F., & Koudstaal, P. J. Disability and Rehabilitation, 17(1), 10-14. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78(8), 828-834. In an earlier analysis, it was stated that it was more conceptually sound to place the self-care items with other basic skills such as use of hands, mobility and speech (Bohac et al., 1997). Fatigue rating scales: an empirical comparison. Willer, B., Button, J., & Rempel, R. (1999). Assessment of health-related quality of life after TBI: comparison of a disease-specific (QOLIBRI) with a generic (SF-36) instrument. Categories are broad and the scale does not reflect subtle improvements in functional status of an individual (Pettigrew et al., 1998). It has been recommended that ½ point scoring increments rather than whole points should be employed in order to increase the precision and sensitivity of the instrument when assessing higher functioning individuals (Hall et al., 1993). The scale is short and simple to administer and score. Malec, J. F., Buffington, A. L., Moessner, A. M., & Degiorgio, L. (2000a). Satz, P., Zaucha, K., Forney, D. L., McCleary, C., Asarnow, R. F., Light, R., Levin, H., Kelly, D., Bergsneider, M., Hovda, D., Martin, N., Caron, M. J., Namerow, N., & Becker, D. (1998). Development of a scale for assessment of agitation following traumatic brain injury. International experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–a review of validation data and clinical results. Current Opinion in Neurology and Neurosurgery, 5(5), 682-686. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, 2015. The SF-36 health survey questionnaire: is it suitable for use with older adults? McPherson, K. M., & Pentland, B. Lancet, 1(7905), 480-484. Segal, M. E., Gillard, M., & Schall, R. (1996). Malec, J. F., & Thompson, J. M. (1994). As a self-completed, mailed questionnaire, it has been shown to have reasonably high response rates: 83% has been reported by Brazier et al. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(6), E14-22. Although the NFI is widely used, there is relatively little information available in the literature with regard to its reliability, validity and responsiveness. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Hall, K. M., Mann, N., High Jr, W. M., Wright, J., Kreutzer, J. S., & Wood, D. (1996c). Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(10), 1303-1308. McDowell, I., & Newell, C. (1996). Preinjury Personality Traits and the Prediction of Early Neurobehavioral Symptoms Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. General health and history questionnaire. Treatment of agitation following traumatic brain injury: a review of the literature. Developed in 1987, in part as a response to criticism of the Barthel Index, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was intended to address issues of sensitivity and comprehensiveness as well as provide a uniform measurement system for disability for use in the medical remuneration system in the United States (McDowell & Newell, 1996). ), Cognitive Rehabilitation (pp. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 66(1), 35-37. The Edinburgh Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (EEGOS): rationale and pilot studies. Our person-centred ABI approach, enables us to work with individuals at a pace that feels comfortable with them. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(12), 2271-2275. The Glasgow coma scale. Characteristics and comparisons of functional assessment indices: Disability Rating Scale, Functional Independence Measure, and Functional Assessment Measure. 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