We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Shipping lanes and Carthaginian ports were blockaded and controlled which would eventually have a significant impact on Hannibal's campaign in Italy. Following its defeat in the First Punic War, the Carthaginian Empire looked to rebuild its power base by controlling Spain. Both he and Scipio spent the remainder of the year spreading Roman control while preparing for the final campaign to eliminate the Carthaginian presence in Hispania. Mago, was reinforced by Gisgo and additional Numidian cavalry under Masinissa. Though the Carthaginian sphere of influence was shrinking fast, Hannibal wasn't ready to concede just yet. In 217 BC, Hasdrubal, now in command of the Carthaginian forces, recruited heavily among the local Iberians. Flaminius was brash and eager to meet the Carthaginian force and exact revenge for previous Roman losses. Gnaeus raided the Balearic Islands to put down a revolt of the local Iberians and Publius took control of the overall navy. From there, he continued on to Sicily to prepare for the invasion of Carthage itself on the African mainland. Hannibal, always the tactician, was well aware of the Roman commander's strategy and laid in wait. To counteract Hannibal's methods, the Romans elected Fabius Maximus as dictator. Victories over Syracuse in Sicily and at Capua in Italy allowed the Romans to send some reinforcements and plan for the next year's campaign. Knowing that Masinissa would arrive shortly, the scale would tip back towards the Romans in terms of battlefield strength, and Hannibal didn't offer anything that the Romans hadn't already won. As the remaining Gauls fled the battle, the Romans allowed them to leave, to spread the word of the great Roman victory and the re-establishment of dominance in Italy. Fierce resistance throughout the march debilitated Hannibal's army. The beginning of 211 BC proved to be a much better year for the Barca clan. Because of Scipio's brilliant tactical ability his inferiority in numbers (and an army made up of mostly non Romans) didn't make a difference. The Roman plan for the season was simple, engage and defeat the Carthaginian ground forces. In the end, 40,000 enemy troops were dead with an additional 5,000 prisoners taken, but both Syphax and Hasdrubal escaped. Carthage, however, had recalled Hannibal from Italy and seemed to accept the terms only to give Hannibal enough time to return. Completely outnumbered and unable to face the Romans from so many points, a marine force was able to storm the gates and gain entry to the city. In the end, it was a terrible slaughter and Paullus would be dead with the bulk of his men. Hannibal, despite his heavily favored ratio of victories in the overall campaign, was becoming more and more desperate for reinforcements after every engagement; victory or defeat. Conversely, the Romans had nearly 50,000 mixed legionary and Celtic infantry with an additional 5,000 cavalry. This second edition includes a new introduction that explores the consequences for government and the governing classes of the replacement of the Republic by the rule of emperors. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Leaving a substantial force to bring Spain under Roman control, Scipio, recently elected Consul, moved to Sicily and organized the forces left there from earlier campaigns. Hannibal withdrew and Marcellus followed. Hannibal's army, significantly supplemented, was now ready to push full force into Italy. The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook, Empire of Honour: The Art of Government in the Roman World, Roman Government's Response to Crisis, A.D.235-337, Swords Against The Senate: The Rise Of The Roman Army And The Fall Of The Republic, Augustus, First Roman Emperor: Power, Propaganda and the Politics of Survival. While Hannibal's front lines were destroyed, his own vaunted veterans stood in the Roman's path. Hasdrubal's duty was to maintain Carthaginian dominion over Spain and to defend the primary interests (especially mines and resources) from Roman countering forces. The pressures that Rome faced during the Second Punic War resulted in significant changes to the Roman political system. He laid waste to the interior towns of Carthaginian territory and met with Masinissa and his Numidian cavalry near the Bagrades River. At the critical juncture, however, the Roman and Numidian cavalry broke off its pursuit of the fleeing Carthaginian cavalry and returned to attack Hannibal's flanks. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian force commanded by Hasdrubal Gisgo, arrived from Africa. In 202 BC, Hannibal learned that Publius Cornelius Scipio was devastating the area around Zama and left his base in Hadrumetum to confront him. Publius Cornelius Scipio debarked for Sicily in 205 BC with an army of volunteers, to meet up with forces (the survivors from Cannae) assigned to him there. Write the following events onto cards, and sort them in chronologcal order, adding a date where possible: Hannibal besieges Saguntum. His generals again urged him to not waste any more effort and go for the final kill, but Hannibal was reluctant. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The Romans meanwhile, lost as few as 500 dead and 4,000 wounded. They also made inroads with the Celtiberians and were able to recruit an additional army of 20,000 tribesmen. You can read John D Clare's blog-post - The Saguntum Outrage and the Causes of the Second Punic War - here. As the two armies were drawn up in their lines, Hannibal requested a meeting directly with Scipio. Left completely vulnerable, Gnaeus Scipio had little recourse but to slowly withdraw while holding off Hasdrubal's attacks. In 203 BC Hannibal sailed his remaining army of some 15,000 men back home and the war in Italy was over. Maximus' efforts to dwindle Hannibal's army, well aware of his problems in getting reinforcements, and wait for the right moment to strike were unappreciated by a nervous and anxious population. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. Hannibal, it was suggested, lost his spirit, understanding that Rome would rather sacrifice its own than surrender anything to him. Second Punic War Effect. The end of the First Punic War saw the beginning of the Roman expansion beyond the Italian peninsula. From Spain Rome gained great quantities of silver, copper and iron besides agricultural products and fish. Did the Emperors Bring About the Need for a Split Empire? The two armies positioned their lines and soon advanced against one another. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. In salute to the fallen Paullus, Hannibal also honored him with ceremonial rituals in recognition of his valiant actions. With his assumption of command, he immediately set out to subdue rebellious tribes in his rear with his eventual goal to invade Italy. The army of Sempronius was brought up to the Po, and his invasion of Africa was scrapped. A copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus by which he placed the whole world under the sovereignty of the Roman people. Rome's first emperor, Augustus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, has probably had the most lasting effect on history of all rulers of the classical world. Hannibal remained a constant source of fear for Rome. The Twelve Tables are the first attempt to make a law code, and remained the only attempt for nearly one thousand years. Mago and Hanno were utterly defeated and any recent Carthaginian levies were scattered beyond hope of recovery. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … In effect, Rome had accomplished in Hispania what Hannibal had attempted to do in Italy, turning the inhabitants against the traditional power. The Battle of Metaurus was the most pivotal battle of the entire war. Preparing for a single and final decidng battle Scipio positioned his forces to prevent a Carthaginian retreat to their base at Gades. A civil war being fought between two brothers of the same undetermined tribe in a very fertile region in the mountain foothills also worked in Hannibal's favor. He hoped that by marching through southern Gaul and northern Italy, recent conflicts between the Romans and local tribes would boost his ranks with fresh angry recruits. While the commander of the day, Varro, fled the battle, Paullus stayed the course trying to save his army. The pressures that Rome faced during the Second Punic War resulted in significant changes to the Roman political system. The Romans introduced a new system in Sicily, where the people were made neither allies nor citizens, but instead subjects. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. One significant and lasting change to Rome as a result of the Punic Wars was an increase in the use of slaves. Other Celts harassed Hannibal's baggage trains, rolling large boulders from the heights onto the Carthaginian columns, causing panic and death among the victims. He and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio sailed to Massilia, in southeastern Gaul, with the intention of meeting Hannibal before he could reach the safety of the Alps. With their new leader Scipio the Romans had an advantage at the Battle of Zama. Prior to going through the mountains, however, Hannibal's army was under supplies and exhausted after marching 750 miles from Carthago Nova to Transalpine Gaul. One of his generals, Silanus, was sent with 10,000 infantry and 500 cavalry on a forced march to attack Mago in his training camp. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. The resulting plunder offered some relief in the form of food and supplies, but constant pressure from the Celts, landslides, continuing bad weather and poor supply made the success of the operation all the more memorable. With the defeat of Hasdrubal and Mago, Rome was free to conduct operations against Carthage in retaliation for its invasion of Italy. They held as firm as they could, while Hasdrubal's cavalry pushed around to the rear of the enemy and the Carthaginian infantry held firm on the immediate flanks. Looking for a flexible role? The Battle of the Trebbia River was the first significant engagement of the war and the first real test for Hannibal and his army. The main reasons for the Second or Hannibalic War were the ambition and pride of prominent military generals and a poorly configured political agreement. With only 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and only a few remaining elephants, his army was decimated by the journey. As a result Spanish forces were sent to Africa to help quell the rebellion, but rather than putting it to an end, Syphax was able to withdraw via Gibraltar and add his vaunted Numidian cavalry to the Roman cause. As Marcellus cautiously pursued Hannibal's army that was constantly on the move, the Romans recaptured the port base of Tarentum. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and … Task. Marcellus was able to cross back into Italy and put more pressure on Hannibal. P. 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