Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. The Ecology of War in China. The floods, which occurred in 1887, 1931, and 1938, collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. The deadliest was a 1332–33 flood that killed 7 million people. The flooding event of 1938 is considered a 50-year flood.It resulted in $40 million of damages, and the Red Cross deemed it the “fifth largest flood in history”.In response to the floods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began channelizing local streams and building more flood control dams. What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. So, ed.. A 1994 official history of the war put the dead in the flood at 900,000 and the refugees at nearly 10 million. Dili xuebao [Geography journal] 19 :2 (December), 234 –244. It claimed between .9 million to 2 million lives. The 1938 Yellow River flood (Chinese: 花园口决堤事件; pinyin: huāyuán kǒu juédī shìjiàn) was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of the Japanese forces. The flooded countryside was more or less abandoned and all the crops destroyed. China 1938 Yellow River Flood Historical Impact: -During second Sino-Japanese war -The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the The most destructive of these floods occurred in August 1931, when 34,000 square miles (88,000 square km) of land were completely inundated, and approximately 8,000 square miles (21,000 square km) more were partially flooded, leaving 80 million people homeless. In 1887 alone, 900,000 people died in the floods. Buy the print book Check if you have access via personal or institutional login. There have been more previous flooding of the Yellow river including one that was human induced in 1938, but the 1931 flood was the last of the natural floods that brought about such large amounts of damage. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. Wenchuan earthquake, 2008. [3], Controversy over the number of casualties. These three floods collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. China Flood (1931) China floods or Yellow River floods is considered as one of the worst floods in … Yellow River Flood (1938) The Yellow river flood of 1938, was the largest act of environmental warfare. The original plan was to destroy the dike at Zhaokou, but due to difficulties at that location the dike was destroyed on June 5 and June 7 at Huayuankou, on the south bank. Dutch, Steven I. The 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood was third, with 500,000–700,000 deaths. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. The top five deadliest floods in world history occurred when the Huang He (Yellow) River in China exceeded its banks. In the shifting battles between bandits, Nationalists, Communists, and Japanese, counting casualties was not a high priority. Chinese forces bravely advance enemy fire against the Japanese while the Yellow River began to flood in 1938. Lauri Paltemaa. Chapter; Aa; Aa; Get access. 3. Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage (in land)? "Drowned Earth: The Strategic Breaching of the Yellow River Dyke, 1938". Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. This list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes). There is no way of accurately assessing the casualties: much of the population, including officials had already fled, leaving no government control and no one to count the dead. The rain increased into July and August of 1931. In 1938 the Yellow River was turned into a weapon of strategic defense, its waters let loose on the North China plain by Chinese forces resisting the Japanese invasion. China has had a particularly long and terrible history of flooding. The then Nationalist Government decided to halt the forces from further advancement. Beginning around 3,000 years ago, researchers found, people living along the Yellow River started building levees and other flood mitigation systems. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. By some accounts abnormal weather over central China began in the winter months of late 1930. The government, after initially claiming that the breach was caused by Japanese bombing, used the heavy casualties to demonstrate the scale of sacrifice required of the Chinese people. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1938 During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Nationalist blew up the dikes holding back the Yellow River in an attempt to stop the invading Japanese. pp. 2 Yellow River China 1887 900,000 - 2,000,000 River flood 3 Yellow River China 1938 500,000-700,000 River flood 4 River Ru China 1975 231,000 Dam failure (Brush and Wolman, 200&)The causes of both the 1887 and 1931 floods from the Yellow river are the same, heavy rain. The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the river was rediverted to its former course so that it again emptied into the Bo Hai. It did not end there as close to four million people died in the 1931 floods and almost one million died in 1938. Major floods in China, for example, killed about 2 million people in 1887, nearly 4 million in 1931, and about 1 million in 1938 The 1993 flood on the upper Mississippi River and Midwest killed only 47 people, but the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates the total economic loss at … Indus River flood is recorded as one of the worst flood in terms of water discharge, which totally engulfed the surrounding regions. Afterwards, the government wasn’t able to organize enough relief efforts. The point was nevertheless made, the breach had in the end given the Communists a huge boost in the North. Yellow River Flood, They May Attack in Another PEIPING, Jane 21 - â– ... Yellow River Flood Waters as Japanese Army Bogs Down Shanghai, June 'armies, wading knee deep through Yellow … By the 1940s they had evolved into a major guerrilla base known as the Yuwansu Base Area. Yellow River Flood, China – 1938. The Ecology of War in China Henan Province, the Yellow River, and Beyond, 1938–1950. Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage (in land)? [3], The breach in the dam became such a major rallying point for the Communists that they actually tried to halt an attempt by the Chinese Government, with the assistance of the UN, to seal the breach. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. To stop further Japanese advances into western and southern China, Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese Nationalists during the Sino-Japanese War ordered the breaking of the Yellow River dikes. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take over Zhengzhou, the junction of the arterial Pinghan and Longhai Railways, and Japanese success would have directly endangered the major cities of Wuhan and Xi'an. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. The flooded areas became fertile recruiting grounds for the Chinese Communists, using their anger towards a shared enemy to bring them into their ranks. Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military history of China (disambiguation), https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood?oldid=5263157. The Japanese did not occupy much of Henan until late in the war and their hold on Anhui and Jiangsu remained tenuous. Their armed resistance ultimately failed and the dikes were rebuilt in 1946 and 1947 and Yellow River returned to its pre-1938 course. The 1938 flood on the Yellow River was a man made event, caused when the Nationalist Army under Chiang blew up the Yellow River levees on the south bank of the river at Huayuankou. Disaster: Manmade 1938 Yellow River Flood Japan vs China War Estimated 500,000 Innocents Died. Diana Lary, "The Waters Covered the Earth: China's War-Induced Natural Disaster," in Mark Selden and Alvin Y. dikes were destroyed to cause flooding, and this was demonstrated in the Yellow River Flood of 1938. Rainfall of over an inch occurred on both September 12 and September 15. Leave a Comment / Natural / By devastating High rain fall caused the Yellow River to overtop its banks leading to a widespread flood and the deaths of 900,000. Chapter. China 1938 Yellow River Flood Historical Impact: -During second Sino-Japanese war -The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the Swept over 9000 square miles of the plain When? Unable to fully decide which group deserved more blame for the catastrophe, the Chinese Government or the invading Japanese, many survivors blamed both sides. Huang He floods, (1887, 1931, 1938), series of devastating floods in China caused by the overflowing of the Huang He (Yellow River), the country’s second longest river. The floods, which occurred in 1887, 1931, and 1938, collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. An official Nationalist post-war commission estimated that 800,000 were drowned, which may be an underestimate. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. During the second Sino-Japanese war, China was under pressure from Japanese forces. Before the damming of the river it was extremely prone to flooding which in turn caused millions of deaths. The rains produced with the hurricane took a minor or moderate flood and resulted in the major flooding that occurred in 1938. From 1928 to 1930 a long drought preceded the flood. Heavy snowstorms in the winter were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the river levels even higher. Marjaana Mäenpää The death tolls from each of the three flood disasters were over 500,000 people. The Yellow River Vallley of China, with Box A identifying the flood plain regions researched in this study.The star in Box B is the location of the Anshang and Sanyangzhuang sites. The Yellow River flooding is responsible for the deadliest disaster in human history. Japanese troops were out of its range, either to the north and east or to the south. Resilience consideration •Why design for flood resilience •Is flood resilience covered in Government policy • Why is resilience guidance required •What is the aim of this guidance •How to use this guidance Flooding considerations •What are the causes of flooding •What is flood risk management •How does floodwater enter a building •What damage can a flood cause •The effects of contaminated floodwater … The 1938 Yellow River flood was created by the ‘Chinese Government’ itself. The floods covered and destroyed thousands of square kilometers of farmland and shifted the mouth of the Yellow River hundreds of miles to the south. 1 Strategic decision and subsequent flood ; 2 Controversy regarding the strategy ; 3 Controversy regarding number of casualties ; 4 … The Yellow River in China has become a classic example of how upstream use … Thanks to the massive property destruction and the loss of live it has caused, the river has been dubbed ‘’China’s Sorrow’’ by westerners. So, buckle up! What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. MANILA — A local official and a scientist have offered explanations as to why Cagayan province frequently experiences intense flooding. natural disasters, China [1887, 1931, 1938]. [3], The number of casualties in the flood remains disputed and estimates have been revised by the Chinese government and other researchers in the decades after the event. Draining a basin of 745 000 square kilometres which nourishes 120 million people, the Yellow River is the second longest river in China. Let us take a look at 30 facts about Yellow River and find out a few interesting things about it. Why is Yellow River called China’s Sorrow? The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the river was rediverted to its former course so that it again emptied into the Bo Hai. Upon the recession of the waters much of the ground was uncultivable as much of the soil was covered in silt. 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