Like some are responsible for so many potential diseases in human and other living beings while others are utilized for benefit of our environment. They have their uses in food production, beverages production and many other things. Incubators have a heating system that allows for the temperature within the incubator to be adjusted according to the type of organism cultivated inside. In a microbiology laboratory, a spectrophotometer is applied for the measurement of substance concentration of protein, nucleic acids, bacterial growth, and enzymatic reactions. Feel that? Types of sterilization techniques in microbiology. 2. This burner is made with a metal tube on a flat base with a gas inlet at the bottom of the tube, which may have an adjustable valve. It is widely used in the microbiology … Types of sterilization Although there are many techniques of sterilization available out there, heat and chemical method is widely employed to sterile metals and food substances. As they are highly precise and based on advanced technology, analytical balances are explicitly used in laboratories for the effective completion of tasks like weighing test materials and sampling amounts, formulation, density determination, purity analysis, quality control testing, and material and conformance testing. The standard source of carbon for bacteria is glucose and for nitrogen it is peptones. Once the burner is connected to a gas source, the gas is forced by the gas pressure so that the gas reaches the top where the flame is ignited with a match or a lighter. Other than that microbiology is also an applied science that assists agriculture, environmental sector, health and medicine and the growing biotechnology industry. Microbiology equipment is a large category covering all kinds of items used in microbiology laboratories. world. Negative stains are used when a specimen or a part of it, such as the capsule resists taking up the stain. Throughout most of the modem history of drinking water supply, concerns about pathogenic microbes have focused on ente… Microbiologists can also specialize in certain areas of microbiology, such as clinical microbiology, environmental microbiology, applied microbiology, or food microbiology. Aseptic techniques should be used for decreasing the possibility of bacterial contamination. Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. 4. Therefore, an article on basic techniques involved in microbiology can help all in many ways. Diagnostic microbiology. A centrifuge is a device that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis, where an outward force is applied perpendicularly to the axis. Let’s have a brief discussion on some of the common culture techniques. Minimized human interference 3. It is coupled with a heating system to heat the liquid while it mixed. The transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated water continues to be a risk to public health in the United States and throughout the rest of the. They have both positive as well as negative effects. The resistance in the coils converts the electrical energy into heat energy which causes the coils to release heat. These various types of light microscopes can be used to complement each other in diagnostics and research. The heat is used to kill the microbes in the substance. This device consists of a rotating magnetic or an electromagnet creating a rotating magnetic field that allows the stir bar (a piece of heavy metal) to move around in the vessel. Even though we will never know for certain the true phylogeny of any organism, phylogenetic analysis provides best assumptions, thereby providing a framework for various disciplines in microbiology. There are many different types of microscopes, each of which works on their respective principles. The media that is to be used for growth of bacteria or any other microbes should be sterilized either by heating in an autoclave at 121oC for about 15 min. _____________… The instruments used in the microbiology labs include a bunch of different kinds of instruments required for a lot of different processes conducted within those laboratories. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Microbiology is the study of microscopic life forms and is used by scientists studying viruses, plants, fungi, protozoans, cells, and parasites. Different types of microscopes are developed to cater to the specific needs of the observation. Incubator provides an optimal temperature, pressure, moisture, among other things required for the growth of microorganisms. A general understanding about functioning of the cell has originated from study of microorganisms. The incubator is based on the principle of maintaining a proper atmosphere for the growth of microorganisms. The basic principle in a microscope is magnification. A vortex mixture is one of the basic technologies used for the mixing of samples in glass tubes or flasks in laboratories. •Prefixes are used to indicate the relationship of a unit to the basic unit (e.g. A colony counter is primarily used for counting the number of colonies present on a culture plate to estimate the concentration of microorganisms in liquid culture. The two most common medium used for growth of bacteria is nutrient broth and nutrient agar. The basic principle of an autoclave is that all the items within the autoclave come in direct contact with the steam for a particular period irrespective of the nature of the material- whether it is liquid, plastic ware, or glassware. A hot air oven is an electrical device that is used for sterilization of medical equipment or samples using dry heat. A Laminar Hood is made up of stainless steel, avoiding joints and corners to prevent the accumulation of bacterial spores. It involves use of enrichment media that will help in growth of particular bacteria against the other that are present in the given sample because of its specialized nutrient utilization capability and other such metabolic properties. In microbiology lab, it is used for maintaining pH of the medium and diluents. Source and finished drinking waters are vulnerable to microbial pathogen contamination from a variety of sources of human and animal fecal wastes and from the introduction and proliferation of nonfecal pathogenic microbes. The hot air rises and doesn’t allow the effective sterilization of the materials. An incubator is a device that is used in the laboratories for the growth and maintenance of microorganisms and cultures. for a more extended period of time. Instruments Techniques and principals in Microbiology 1. Spread plate method is used for culture of special clonal colonies and pour plate method is used for counting the specific number of colonies in a liquid medium. Many types of microscopes fall under the category of light microscopes, which use light to visualize images. The pH meter must be standardized with buffer solutions before operation. 1st Year General Microbiology Syllabus (Nepal), T.U. The equipment inside the oven acquire heat and pass the heat towards the center, one layer at a time which allows for effective dry heat sterilization. Techniques used in studying about growth of bacteria. ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Spectrophotometry is based on the Beer-Lambert Law, which states the absorbance of light by a solution (of a particular wavelength) is directly proportional to the concentration of the substance. This is the most common method of sterilization. Laminar Hood is commonly used to conduct processes that are sensitive to contamination. Learn how your comment data is processed. There are several culture techniques. Microbiologists use aseptic technique for a variety of procedures such as transferring cultures, inoculating media, isolation of pure cultures, and for performing microbiological tests. It is recommended to wear gloves. B.Sc. An electromagnet is used to create a force required to achieve a balance with the mass of the substance, and the resulting force is displayed. Laboratory techniques in microbiology. Bacterial Identification methods Bacteria as mentioned before or so tiny that one cannot watch without a microscope. A homogenizer is primarily used to disrupt cells to acquire cell organelles for different microbiological processes. Autoclaves are mostly used for the sterilization of medical or laboratory equipment with the capacity of sterilizing a large number of materials at once. If gloves are not used, it is necessary to wash hands before and after testing. Thus, the denser particles settle at the bottom while the lighter particles are collected at the top. It allows for the destruction of microorganisms as well as bacterial spores. A number of techniques are routine in microbiology laboratories that enable microorganisms to be cultured, examined and identified. One can accomplish the counting either manually with the touch pressure or with a digital counter. Nutrient broth is a soup like liquid medium that is poured in tubes while nutrient agar is the nutrient broth that is set into jelly form by addition of seaweed extract called agar and poured into plates. This is an interactive multimedia textbook for basic Microbiology lab techniques. pH meter is an electrical instrument used for measuring hydrogen ion concentration of solutions and mixtures (Fig. Chemical sterilization. Contextual animations in each section give users good illustrations of technique details and related theories. Organic chemistry. According to this process, water is first brought to a boil and then condensed into liquid form to obtain pure distilled water. They are commonly used for the preparation of culture media during laboratory applications. Based on the relative position of the object from the lens or electromagnets, different positions, nature, and magnification of the image can be achieved. These techniques usually involve disinfecting working areas, decreasing the possible access by bacteria from outside air to the media and using of flames for killing bacteria that might enter the vessel when they are opened. A deep freeze can be used for the preservation of different things used in the laboratories for a very long period of time. B.Sc. It is commonly used for processes like sterilization, combustion, and heating. Disease-causing bacteria usually don’t visible to naked eye and hence a variety of sterilization techniques are employed in microbiology. Laminar Air Flow has to turn on 15 minutes before to ensure complete sterilization and the workstation should be cleaned with ethanol before and after use. Electron microscopy can be used to observe biofilms, but only after dehydrating the specimen, which produces undesirable artifacts and distorts the specimen. A pH meter is often termed as “potentiometric pH meter” as it measures the difference in electric potential between the reference and a pH electrode. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, a diverse group of generally minute simple life-forms, including bacteria, algae, and viruses. Filtration method; Heat method of sterilization. Wipe the outside of the containers, flasks, plates, and dishes with 70% ethanol before placing them in the cell culture hood. A new tool for systematic analysis of research labs. When the bulb with the electrodes is dipped into a solution, hydrogen ions in the solution exchange with positive charges on the electrode generating an electrochemical potential which is displayed in terms of pH units on display. Metric system: •Basic unit of length: Meter. Thank you very much. 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