A few examples must suffice. Geography … A vibrant reflection has emerged from his work, with a successful and growing team of economic and urban geographers applying Dematteis’ conceptualizations to numerous empirical cases and influencing contemporary debates on the ‘urban’ also outside of academia. The word 'Geography' was first coined by the Greek geographer Eratosthenes in the third century Before Christ. In contemporary geographical thought, cultural identity and racial theory remain important to understanding ‘man’ and environment relations. Students and teachers alike became more prepared to reconsider the taken-for-granted titles applied to academic specializations and long-entrenched ‘eras’ or periods of change: it seemed perfectly feasible to discuss, for instance, ‘Enlightenment’s geographies’ and ‘geography’s enlightenments’. Human geography, with its long tradition of linking the natural and cultural landscape to human settlement and activity, was at the forefront of tracing the growing ‘metabolic rift’, which was being witnessed between seemingly unstoppable economic processes and their environmental problems. Nevertheless, a growing number of commentators began to consider the implications that present generations were, indeed, playing a sort of ‘Russian roulette’ with the natural and ecological heritage. It was then reinforced in the post-war period of the twentieth century as the state-induced ‘intensive food regime’ became more dominant and associated with the ecological effects of pesticides and herbicides on local human and natural ecologies; but it quickly spread to an array of industrial and consumption processes as the effects of pollution, contamination, soil depletion, and water quality were first defined and then measured. The recognition of the instability and contestation of meanings facilitate and demand an examination of the politics behind the conflictual processes that establish those meanings. Sign in. First, although it focused on everyday practices such as consumption, it tended to retreat from practice into the (cultural) politics of representation; creating deadening effects on an otherwise active world. Using a contextual approach also raises the question of ‘which context?’ For example, it has been argued both that there is much to be learned about geography by looking beyond the academy, and that too little is known about geography's place within the academy. His position as a professor at Tokyo Higher Normal School made him hugely influential among school teachers as well as his contemporary conventional geographers. However, even proponents recognize that there are limitations to the contextual approach which can be presented as a cure-all for historiographical work. Farinelli’s theory of cartographic reason has indeed been an extraordinary contribution to the understanding of the ‘deep’ nature of geography and the genealogies of power that have always accompanied it. Concept Publishing Company, 2008 - Geographical perception - 495 pages. Covers the complete range of the development of theoretical knowledge of the field, from ancient geography to contemporary non-representational theory Presents theories in an accessible manner through the authors engaging … Part 3 Representation and post-representation, Registered in England & Wales No. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104002960, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104009597, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104005721, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104005861, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104006994, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104004958, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104007173, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104003898, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008044910400290X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080449104002893, International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, The contextual approach has increasingly been normalized within the history of geography, replacing whiggish and exclusionary accounts of the development of the subject; the role of ideas and practices external to academic geography in shaping, Non-Representational Theory/Non-Representational Geographies, , has published a large number of succinct studies of the contributions made by individuals to, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Ptolemy firmly believed that geography is a science that deals with the art of map-making. Although postmodern positions are highly contested and disputed, there is a general consensus that postmodernism is not only about questioning meta-narratives or the grand theories, but also about questioning the construct of human as rational being independent of social and cultural embeddedness, completely overwhelmed by hegemonic structures. This engaging and accessible introduction to geographic thought explores the major thinkers and key theoretical developments in the field of human geography. The national research program on ‘regions and regionalization’ in which both Vallega and Turco participated (along with many other influential Italian and European geographers) represented in many ways the apex of this theoretical reflection, and has been enormously influential since (as has been the edited volume that came out of the project – Regione e Regionalizzazione – Region and Regionalization, edited by Turco in 1984). Opening with an exploration of the founding concepts of human geography in the nineteenth century academy, the authors examine the range of theoretical … The medieval geographies outlined above hint at this potential. Recent critiques of the history of geography have pointed to the marginalization or omission of some groups within the historiography and current practices of geography – including those using an externalist-contextual approach. 8 Reviews . Research abstracting services, the Journal of Historical Geography, Progress in Human Geography, and geography’s leading ‘mixed’ international periodicals, record an increasingly lively presence which challenges not only mainstream historical geography but all branches of academic geography. the importance of evolutionary theory for 19 th century geographical thought. Ambedkar. Positivism: or, roughly, what you see is what you get. A. Saito, F. Mizuoka, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009. The book provides an essential introduction to the theories that have shaped the study of societies and space. By analyzing the differences between Asia and the West, it argues that cultural differences affect people's thought processes more significantly than believed. Discourses work in social contexts with material consequences: this is both the site and content of ‘new’ self-critical discursive historiography of geography. Geographical thought (MCQ "43" question part- 1) exam December 2020 - Duration: 33:13. His ‘systemic geography’ and his books on the history and the theory of the region in geography soon became a must-read for most junior (and not-so-junior) human geographers in Italy. Geographical Thought provides a clear and accessible introduction to the key ideas and figures in human geography. But unlike the other social sciences, Dematteis would note, geography has as its object of analysis something quite solid, inevitably ‘material’ – the territory. At the outset its kinship with historical geography exhibited shared skills and scholarly predilections, and commonalities of attraction to certain past periods. For example, in the case of notionally ‘new’ countries like Australia, the journal already offers a first port-of-call – with prompts on the engagements of a sizable group of explorers, writers, statesmen, independent environmental scientists, and others in governmental agencies, as well as on professionally designated geographers and other university personnel. However, the freedom from essential identities and partial anthropological histories offers only a temporary consolation from a definition of identity as essential and bounded. This had first been recognized as early as the mid-nineteenth century as artificial fertilizers were introduced to ‘solve’ the problems and needs of increasing agricultural output for a growing industrial and urban population, within the intensive agricultural systems of North America and Europe. The book provides an essential introduction to the theories that have shaped the study of societies and space. A more holistic and integrated approach to writing geography’s history is required. L. Cadman, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009. It is derived from one of the fundamental human interests, namely the curiosity about knowing the place never visited; its main focus is to ‘describe’ the ‘parts’ of the world. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315847528, Geographies of empire: the imperial tradition, Post-colonial geographies and the colonial present, Emotions, embodiment and lived geographies. Being is linked to ‘belonging’ in notions of citizenship. This approach is shared by those who affiliate themselves to, or make use of, the post-structuralist work of Derrida and Foucault as a powerful analytical tool because of their recognition that cultural concepts lack transparent and shared meanings. Indeed, through the work of geographers such as Beazley, Wright, and Kimble in the early twentieth century, it could be argued that medieval geography helped shape the modern discipline, at least in its Anglo-American manifestation. C. Minca, in International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 2009. Edward Said's Orientalism played a crucial role in understanding how the ‘Other’ is constructed. These four ‘threads’ are perhaps the lines of thought that have most clearly marked Italian geographical debates in the past three decades, in some cases giving life to truly novel understandings of geographical representations. It was against such overarching meta-narratives, the ‘grand theory’, the ‘universal truth’, sometimes called ‘god’s eye view’ that postmodernism arose, not as replacement, but as reaction, skepticism, and resistance, initially in the domain of architecture and planning, linguistics, literature, and philosophy and subsequently spreading to theology, the arts, and medical and social sciences, including geography. They are evident, for example, in charting a ‘cartographic genealogy of the Earth’ that spans the ancient, medieval, and modern worlds. The book provides an essential introduction to the theories that have shaped the study of societies and space. Third, taking a contextual approach allows for the continuity of some ideas while new systems of thought emerge in parallel; it also avoids an artificial dichotomy between internal and external factors of scientific change as does the discursive approach, which identifies sets of ideas forming and jostling for influence over the way a given society thinks and acts (including academic communities). Thus, there have been recent calls to study ‘minor’ as well as ‘major’ figures, small scale as well as larger schema, to consider ordinary or vernacular histories, and to look for hidden, obscured, or omitted histories. User Review - Flag as inappropriate. Largely influenced by this Foucauldian view, it is widely accepted that texts are not mere reflectors of the material world but are relations of power in themselves. What is omitted from histories can be just as revealing as what is included. The postmodern critique of the modernist view thus concerned the latter’s singularity as well as its privileged position – the fact that it allowed for only one truth and one story, whereas there can be many truths/stories and even one truth/story can be told in myriad ways. Geographical Thought provides a clear and accessible introduction to the key ideas and figures in human geography. Richard Peet looks in detail at the main trends in human geographic thought over the last thirty years, relating these to broader themes in philosophy and social theory. This is why geography, now as always, functions as a precious cognitive interface between the materiality of the world and its diverse representations. David Livingstone's work The Geographical Tradition has been pivotal in raising questions about social context, metaphysical assumptions, professional aspirations, and ideological allegiances, asking questions such as: what role did geography play in past society? His theory and practice can be seen as parochial because locality tended to be treated in isolation and as a self-contained entity, not in the dynamic interaction with the surroundings. Foucault argues the question (and therefore the strategy) is to consider what it means for a given statement or body of knowledge to appear when and where it did, and we can ask this question about geography as a whole or a given geographical text: what is its location in the cultural complexity of the specific moment of its historical production? At its best, by successfully synthesizing the detailed geographical knowledge, it could lead to a comprehensive, coherent, and holistic understanding of local characteristics. Un’Introduzione ai Modelli del Mondo (Geography. This is shown in his book Our Land, first published in 1929 which became seminal and continued to be read even during the 1950s. Opening with an exploration of the founding concepts of human geography in the nineteenth century academy, the authors examine the range of theoretical … Keiji Tanaka (1885–1975) was one of the pioneers of modern geography in Japan. At the outset its kinship with historical geography exhibited shared skills and scholarly predilections, and commonalities of attraction to certain past periods. For example, many histories of geography give the impression that pre-1970s geography was a male preserve. In such pursuits, modernist scholars tried to transfer physiological properties of organized matter, the forms and conditions of existence of life which usually follow definitive evolutionary track to the realm of social. Various places in geography ’ s history between Asia and the West, it avoids a sense of progression. University Press contains insightful lines of argument that encourage readers towards independent thinking and critical evaluation Tanaka ( 1885–1975 was... 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