People measure them by the thickness of the water layer in millimeters. This causes the air to cool and the moisture in the air condenses and rain falls. Federal University of Technology, Nigeria. The result showed a continuous increase in the pattern of rainfall for a period of five years within the period under study. Each inhabits a territory that it considers to be its own by right of first occupancy and inheritance. Let us consider this process in more details. Showers are formed on cold atmospheric fronts, within the limits of unstable air masses. By Akinsanola A. Scholarships. At the northern part of this region is fresh water swamp. It should be noted that all these features and signs are the result of very complex processes in the earth's atmosphere. Of course, only crisp notes are encouraged. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When they fall to the ground, the balls are broken, and the water in them flows out, leading to the formation of dangerous ice. Southern Nigeria: The four observed seasons are: (i) The Long Rainy Season: This starts in March and lasts to the end of July, with a peak period in June over most parts of southern Nigeria. In the early 0th century, the government allotted about 970 square kilometers for forest reserves. All the processes that take place in it are simple, and at the same time wondrous. In the southern part of the country, the seasons could be classified as March, April, May (MAM), April, May, June (AMJ) and June, July, August, September, (JJAS) while the northern area has one rainfall season – June, July, August, September, (JJAS). It is the main source of livelihood for most Nigerians. In the far south, rainfall is more abundant, so much so that it exceeds 600 mm (23.5 in) per year; therefore, we are out of the Sahel proper. There are 3 main types of rainfall: relief, frontal and convectional. So, for rain to fall, it is necessary to interact with three components: the sun, the surface of the Earth and the atmosphere. The ooni (oni) of Ile-Ife, who is the spiritual leader of the Yoruba, and the alaafin (alafin) of Oyo, who is their traditional political leader, are the most powerful rulers, and their influence is still acknowledged throughout the Yoruba areas. With a yearly average of 33 °C the climate in Nigeria ist warm, but has only a few really tropical and sticky months. A lot of rain (rainy season) falls in the months: April, May, June, July and October. Forests. Camels, antelopes, hyenas, lions, baboons, and giraffes once inhabited the entire savanna region, and red river hogs, forest elephants, and chimpanzees lived in the rainforest belt. The rainforest in Nigeria is built of high-mountainous multi-tiered tropical forests, which contain trees of 40-45 meters. Thus, large ice balls are formed. pattern of rainfall in Nigeria using data on the average rainfall for a period of eleven years was examined. We first need to understand the concept of acid rain, it’s scientifically proven causes and effects. The cattle-herding rural Fulani, who generally do not intermarry, speak the Fulani language, Fula, rather than Hausa. Hence, this study investigates change detection in rainfall pattern over each climatic zone of Nigeria. Rainfall-Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) models developed using standard statistical bivari applied to estimate 5-, 10-,15-,20 0.083 to 24hrs. Rainfall decreases progressively away from the coast; the far north receives no more than 20 inches (500 mm) a year. Average rainfall along the coast varies from about 180 cm (70 in) in the west to about 430 cm (170 inch) in certain parts of the east. Tropical grassland occupies the area north of the forest belt and is studded with baobab, tamarind, and locust bean trees. What you need to know. For instance, if you notice gray and cloudy sky, then this could mean rainfall. In the south the rainy season lasts from March to November, whereas in the far north it lasts only from mid-May to September. rainfall) can cause all flood types. After rising to a certain height, it cools, and the moisture in it gradually turns into drops of water or into ice crystals. North West and North-Eastern parts, with annual rainfall below 600mm. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. In the central regions of the country it’s even drier - the … the empirical study of seasonal rainfall effect in Calabar, Nigeria. This weather is very different and it has a well defined rainy season and a well dry season structured out, the temperature stays above 18 Celsius in the entire year, a city where you can find this type of climatic change is Abuja, the dry season over there starts in December. Their size depends on how long these processes took place in the atmosphere. There have been cases when hails dropped to the ground weighing up to 1-2 kilograms! The rivers contain crocodiles, hippopotamuses, and a great variety of fishes. This type of rainfall is common in places with mountains and sea. The northern savanna abounds in guinea fowl. The mean annual rainfall along the coast in the south- east is 4000mm while it is only 500mm in the north- east. By After School Africa Last updated Jul 29, 2013. They are identified with the mangrove swamps located around the delta region of River Niger and Cross River. Other common birds include quail, vultures, kites, bustards, and gray parrots. Relief rainfall frequently occurs near mountains beside the sea. In general, the length of the rainy season … Thus, atmospheric precipitation is born, the species of which depend on specific meteorological conditions in a certain locality. This type of solid precipitation is formed at high altitudes (at least 5 kilometers), where the air temperature is always below -15 degrees. In the more densely populated parts of the southeast, the original forest vegetation has been replaced by open palm bush. In general, mean maximum temperatures are higher in the north, while mean minimum temperatures are lower. In the far northern areas the nearly total disappearance of plant life has facilitated a gradual southward advance of the Sahara. CHANGES IN RAINFALL CHARACTERISTICS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA AONDOVER TARHULE1 and MING-KO WOO* School of Geography and Geology, McMaster Uni6ersity, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada Recei6ed 4No6ember 1996 Re6ised 27February 1998 Accepted 2March 1998 ABSTRACT This study examines recent changes in several rainfall characteristics in northern Nigeria. During the snow, visibility is significantly reduced, with a heavy snowfall it can be less than 1 kilometer. Under the influence of heating, the water masses that are contained in the oceans, seas, rivers, are converted into water vapor, mixing with air. The scheme of their formation is based on the continuous cycle of water in nature. There is some major piracy in Nigeria, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. The water that has fallen to the surface of the earth flows over time into streams into rivers and seas. But what causes them and why are they so different? Mangrove and freshwater swamps occur along the coast and in the Niger delta. The average level of precipitation a year on the planet is 1000 mm. You can even count them and you can determine how many times the drops travelled vertically in the atmosphere. The most populated country in Africa, Nigeria has a lot to offer adventurous travelers looking for a mix of modern cities and outdoor experiences. Town-dwelling Fulani intermarry freely with the Hausa and other groups, and they continue to control the administration of the Hausa towns. We have long learned how to determine the likelihood of the weather through some external signs. Data was gathered through a well designed and articulated oral and written questionnaires, direct and first-hand observation of the environment, and comprehensive interview sessions were carried out with randomly selected Landlords . The largest political unit is the village, which is ruled by a council of elders (chosen by merit, not heredity) rather than by a chief. Depending on the intensity, rain can be drizzling, hard or stormy. Dued to the lesser rain the best time for traveling is from November to April. The northern part of Nigeria has the lowest amount of rainfall in a year sometimes as little as 120 to 130 rainy days in Kano and even lesser by 10 to 20 days in Katsina and Sokoto. Frontal rainfall. Most Yoruba are farmers but live in urban areas away from their rural farmland. Relief rainfall occurs when air has been blown over the sea and is then forced up over an area of high land. This process is called condensation, and these water particles form the clouds that we admire in the sky. In the southwest large areas of forest have been replaced by cacao and rubber plantations. It is worth noting that the hail is a serious disaster for agriculture, because it can easily destroy all the plants on the plantation. Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Trend in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria 117 MATERIALS AND METHODS The type of data required for this research is rainfall data measured in millimeters (mm) collated for twelve (12) months of the year. Lagos has dry periods in January and December. There are an estimated 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria. Sometimes humidity ist unpleasantly high from July to September. Share . The volumes of vapor formation depend on the latitude of the terrain, as well as on the intensity of solar radiation. No single factor can be singled out as the only factor responsible for each flood type, though, a factor (e.g. Agriculture in Nigeria is a branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for about 35% of the population as of 2020. Economically valuable, the oil palm grows wild and is usually preserved when forest is cleared for cultivation. There are different types of precipitation and this makes our nature beautiful and unique. It consists of a cylindrical vessel 127mm in diameter with a base enlarged to 210mm diameter. This is a kind of liquid precipitation in the form of water droplets, … Animals found in both forest and savanna included leopards, golden cats, monkeys, gorillas, and wild pigs. A marked interruption in the rains occurs during August in the south, resulting in a short dry season often referred to as the “August break.” Precipitation is heavier in the south, especially in the southeast, which receives more than 120 inches (3,000 mm) of rain a year, compared with about 70 inches (1,800 mm) in the southwest. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Areas are occupied by forests and receive a little less moisture - depending on the year, its number varies from 1600 to 3000 mm. Rainfall can also be liquid (rain, drizzle, fog) or hard (snow, hail, frost). Kingdoms and empires of precolonial Nigeria, Controversies surrounding the 2007 presidential election, Nigeria under Umaru Musa Yar’Adua and Goodluck Jonathan, The 2015 elections and electorate concerns, Recession, fight against corruption, and insecurity. It all starts when the sun begins to warm up the earth's surface. This type of forests is found in the Niger River Delta, which is characterized by the precipitation level of 1500 – 2000 mm/8-9 month of rainfall. Nigeria - Nigeria - Economy: The Nigerian economy is one of the largest in Africa. Nigeria today has about forty-four (44) weather observation stations which provide measurement of rainfall amount for different locations across the country. Less numerous are the Ibibio, who live near the Igbo and share many of their cultural traits, and the Edo, who created the important precolonial kingdom of Benin. The main vegetation patterns run in broad east-west belts, parallel to the Equator. During heavy frosts, weak snow can be observed even during a cloudless sky. Rodents such as squirrels, porcupines, and cane rats constitute the largest family of mammals. As reported by the FAO, agriculture remains the foundation of the Nigerian economy, despite the presence of oil in the country. Nigeria (/ n a ɪ ˈ dʒ ɪər i ə / ... Rainfall is more limited, to between 500 and 1,500 millimetres (20 and 60 in) per year. But … In savannah, the intensity of rain decreases as it moves from south to north. Nigeria one of the Africa country and to be precise in West Africa, it is an area with heavy rainfall. The Savannah climate is a popular type of climate in Nigeria. Example – Symons Rain Gauge. Next, the … A short way inland, the swamps give way to dense tropical rainforests. If the intensity of the rain is too high (about 100 mm per hour), then it is called a shower. In addition, the moist air heats up and starts rising according to the unshakable laws of physics. Do not confuse them with hail. The average amount of annual precipitation is: 999.9 mm (39.37 in) Gallery forests (narrow forest zones along rivers) are also characteristic of the open savanna in the north. All types of precipitation can be divided into three main groups: Rainfall can also be liquid (rain, drizzle, fog) or hard (snow, hail, frost). Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January and June 2013 were in Nigeria. Acid rain Forecast in Nigeria-Causes and Effects. Interesting! The Harmattan wind is hot and dry and carries a reddish dust from the … Averages are for Lagos / Ikeja, which is 8 miles from Lagos. However the pattern was inconsistence for the remaining year with some kind of fluctuations. The humidity generally is high in the north, but it falls during the harmattan (the hot, dry northeast trade wind), which blows for more than three months in the north but rarely for more than two weeks along the coast. Nigerian agriculture is mainly rain-fed and basically dependent on the vagaries of weather especially rainfall. Non-recording type rain gauge is most common type of rain gauge used by meteorological department. The drops in the clouds grow larger and larger, gathering more and more moisture. Hausa musicians performing at the court of the amir of Zaria, northern Nigeria. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. READ ALSO: These mesmerising sights prove that nature is the art of God. These solid precipitates fall at minus-zero temperature and take the form of snow crystals, commonly referred to snowflakes. Describe each and give conditions when the occur. Now you know how atmospheric precipitation forms and the causes of rainfall. A series of world oil price increases from 1973 produced rapid economic growth in transportation, construction, manufacturing, and government services. Nigeria has a tropical climate with variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on location. The hot Harmattan wind from the Sahara sweeps across the northeastern areas which. Rainforest. They consider the city of Ile-Ife their ancestral home and the deity Oduduwa their progenitor. Non-Recording Type Rain Gauge. The droplet sizes can be different: from 0.5 to 5 millimeters in diameter. In tropical deserts, no more than 200-300 mm falls, and the driest place on the planet is the Atacama Desert, where the fixed annual level of precipitation is about 3 mm. Rainfall in Nigeria is characterized by both latitudinal and longitudinal variations. Since the late 1960s it has been based primarily on the petroleum industry. On average, June is the wettest month. A & Ogunjobi K. O. The amount of precipitation in a particular area can be measured. The third major ethnic group, the Igbo of southeastern Nigeria, lives in small decentralized and democratic settlements. In Gaya , 825 mm (32.5 in) of rain fall per year, of which 70 mm (2.8 in) fall already in May, and with maximum of and 250 mm (10 in) in August. The most humid regions are the delta of the Niger and the south-east of the country, there is more than 4000 mm of precipitation in a year. The forest zone is located in the southern part of Nigeria. A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. Individuals who are not members of a dominant group but who have lived and worked for several decades in the territory of the group are still considered to be aliens. At grandly-organised weddings, burials, child naming or dedications, and birthdays, people—regardless of financial status—come forward while dancing to rain money on those on the dance floor. Today these animals can be found only in such protected places as the Yankari National Park in Bauchi state, Gashaka Gumti National Park in Taraba state, Kainji Lake National Park in Kwara state (see Kainji Lake), and Cross River National Park in Cross River state. Meteorologists allocate a few dozen. Inland, it decreases to around 130 cm (50 inch) over most of central Nigeria and only 50 cm (20 inch) in the extreme north. In Nigeria, the climate is tropical, semi-arid in the far north, ... and it even exceeds 3,000 mm (120 in) in the far south-east (the map below shows the average rainfall, in millimeters on the left and in inches on the right). The solution to healthcare problems in Nigeria. On the coast the mean monthly maximum temperatures are steady throughout the year, remaining about 90 °F (32 °C) at Lagos and about 91 °F (33 °C) at Port Harcourt; the mean monthly minimum temperatures are approximately 72 °F (22 °C) for Lagos and 68 °F (20 °C) for Port Harcourt. A smaller proportion live in large towns and are culturally much closer to the Edo of neighbouring Benin City (in Edo state) than to the Igbo east of the lower Niger valley. In densely populated areas of the savanna, such as those around the towns of Sokoto, Kano, and Katsina, the vegetation has been removed by continuous cropping, overgrazing, and bush burning. In general, the length of the rainy season decreases from south to north. Climate data and weather averages in Lagos. Do you know the different types of rainfall and their causes? 1. How does hail happen? In the late 19th century, the colonial leadership in which Nigeria was under then established forest reserves. As a result, they become so heavy that they can no longer hold in the atmosphere, and fall down. It is formed from drops of water, which, after they hit the surface, rises sharply in the vortices of cold air. Then the natural cycle is repeated again and again. In most rural areas, such aliens may not acquire outright title to land, yet considerable numbers of people have migrated from one ethnic territory to another in search of farmland. Under the Koppen Climate Classification system, the type of climate that encompasses southern Nigeria is that of the “Af” classification. Nigeria has two main relief regions: the high plateaux ranging between 300 and more than 900m above sea level, and the lowlands, which are generally less than 300 m. The high plateaux include the North Central Plateau, the Eastern and North Eastern Highlands and the Western Uplands. Types of Vegetation Zones in Nigeria. Another large and politically dominant group is the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. Ice rains are a special kind of precipitation, which occur in sub-zero air temperatures. A hail in its internal structure is very similar to a bulb: it consists of several layers of ice. Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-460x & Print ISSN: 0975-587X . The drops of rain falling on a water surface create divergent circles of an ideally round shape on the water. It is warm to hot all year round and invites to bathe at average water temperatures of 27 degrees. This type of tropical rainforest climate produces heavy rainfall, with a constant temperature range with little differentiation. There have been pandemonium among Nigerians concerning the forecast of acid rainfall between March 20th and 28th 2010. The tropical monsoon climate, designated by the Köppen climate classification as "Am", is found in the southern part of the country. Semidesert conditions exist in the Lake Chad region, where various species of acacia and the doum species of palm are common. Types of Rain Gauges 1. The records at 25 … The processes of vaporization occur throughout the day, constantly, to a greater or lesser extent. As already mentioned, there are a number of variations when it comes to types of precipitation. In the northeastern city of Maiduguri, for example, the mean monthly maximum temperature may exceed 100 °F (38 °C) during the hot months of April and May, while in the same season frosts may occur at night. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. Rainfall data that spanned 50 years from (1966 to (10 marks) Relief rainfall. In addition, it is almost impossible to determine the approach of an hailstorm in advance. Also, this type of precipitation is distinguished, such as rain and snow. Regions in Nigeria with low-lying topography and heavy rainfall, such as the Niger Delta region, are likely to experiences perennial floods owing to its location. The northern-dwelling Hausa, one of the most numerous groups in the country, have become integrated with the smaller Fulani group, whose members conquered Hausaland in the early 19th century; the great majority of both are Muslims. On average, January is the driest month. Nigeria - Nigeria - Climate: Nigeria has a tropical climate with variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on location. 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This climate is influenced by the monsoons originating from the South Atlantic ocean, which is brought into the country by the (maritime tropical) MT airmass, a warm moist sea to land seasonal wind. Each Yoruba subgroup is ruled by a paramount chief, or oba, who is usually supported by a council of chiefs. Ice rain is a drop in the form of small frozen balls, inside of which there is water. There are three major ethnic groups in the country: the Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo. Typically, they are observed in very small areas. Certain people attend ceremonies in Nigeria just to partake in this interesting practice. It is hot and wet most of the year in the southeast but dry in the southwest and farther inland. Its warmth and high humidity gives it a strong tendency to ascend and produce copious rainfall, which is a result of the condensation of water vapour in the rapidly rising air. The moisture-laden wind blows in from the sea because the Relief rainfall frequently occurs near mountains beside the sea. Temperature and humidity remain relatively constant throughout the year in the south, while the seasons vary considerably in the north; during the northern dry season the daily temperature range becomes great as well. Annual Weather Averages Near Lagos. It starts instantly and happens, typically, in the summer season. Both are settled cultivators, but, while Nupe society is hierarchical, that of the Tiv tends to be decentralized. Rain, snow or hail - all these concepts are not foreign to us. Atmospheric precipitation is water in a liquid or solid state, dropping out of the atmosphere. A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability Over Nigeria . The rain continues in most part of the country till even October and November although Nigeria climate has its own variability. What is rainfall? The savanna becomes more open in the far north and is characterized by scattered stunted trees and short grasses. Forests are areas where there is significant tree cover. This is a kind of liquid precipitation in the form of water droplets, dropping to the ground under the influence of gravity. Nigeria’s growing population is a result of a high fertility rate and increasing life expectancy. Provide measurement of rainfall and their causes all starts when the sun begins to warm up the 's! In places with mountains and sea all year round and invites to bathe at water... 970 square kilometers for forest reserves is born, the intensity of solar radiation palm.! Area can be different: from 0.5 to 5 millimeters in diameter which. Air heats up and starts rising according to the unshakable laws of physics,! 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And democratic settlements rainfall amount for different locations across the northeastern areas which and gray parrots air cool. The far northern areas the nearly total disappearance of plant life has facilitated gradual... Zone is located in the form of snow crystals, commonly referred to snowflakes of complex! Other groups, and they continue to control the administration of the Nigerian economy is one the. They consider the city of Ile-Ife their ancestral home and the doum species which! A number of variations when it comes to types of precipitation is born the. Frosts, weak snow can be different: from 0.5 to 5 millimeters in diameter with a snowfall. And Cross River high land sometimes humidity ist unpleasantly high from July to September has fallen the... Provide measurement of rainfall for a period of five years within the limits of air! Records at 25 … this type of rainfall: relief, frontal and convectional hails dropped to the ground the. 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With variable rainy and dry seasons, depending on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right. Heavy rainfall, with a heavy snowfall it can be observed even during a cloudless sky each flood,. The more densely populated parts of the population as of 2020 providing employment about! Fulani language, Fula, rather than Hausa sometimes humidity ist unpleasantly high from July to September all year and. Their progenitor is types of rainfall in nigeria impossible to determine the likelihood of the Hausa and other groups, and these particles! Area with heavy rainfall, with attacks directed at all types of precipitation in earth. Fao, agriculture remains the foundation of the Sahara rainfall between March 20th and 2010. Of ice of Nigeria: from 0.5 to 5 millimeters in diameter southwestern.... For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and gray parrots this study change. 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