Epihydrophily: Hypohydrophily is a pseudo hydrophily that occurs on the surface of the water. Examples: Vallisneria (Ribbon weed) Biotic agents (a)Entomophily • Pollination brought about by insects. Some taxa have been reported as being plants that pollinate at or just above the water surface (epihydrophily): Zostera marina (Cox et al. Vallisneria and Ruppia. Vallisneria shows adaptation for epihydrophily. Self incompatibility is a phenomenon in which genetic mechanism of flower prevents the fusion of gametes of genetically similar plants. Vallisneria is dioecious. Vallisneria and Zostera are monocotyledonous genera, and Ceratophyllum is classified as dicotyledonous. 17. Entomophily: At maturity, male flowers are detached from male inflorescence and begin to float on the water surface. Male plants produces a large number of male flowers, which after breaking, rise upwards in closed state and open on surface of water. In one, the flowers undergo anthesis above the water surface and the reproductive struc-tures (e.g., stigmata, pollen) remain dry: dry-epihy-drophily. Vallisneria americana has epihydrophilous inflorescences with pollen similar to terrestrial species, whereas Z. marina has oily, filamentous pollen that forms floating clusters. The antipodal cells are the part of embryo sac … In Vallisneria male and female plants are separate. In contrast, many seagrasses (i) Epihydrophily:- When the pollination takes place on the surface of water is called epihydrophily e.g. e.g. zostera, ceratophyllum. Vallisneria americana Michaux by Dwilette G. McFarland BACKGROUND: Commonly known as wild celery, Vallisneria americana Michaux (Figure 1) is an important component of aquatic plant communities in central and eastern North America. Epihydrophily : Pollination occurs on the surface of water. Eg: In Vallisneria ,Female flowers reach water surface to ensure pollination. Ceratophyllum, Najas Zostera and Hydrilla. Vallisneria represents the best-known example of dry-epihydrophily (Cook, 1982, and references therein). Established stands provide food and habitat for a variety of invertebrates, sport fish, and water- • Moths, beetles, butterflies, wasp, etc. The coiled female plant undergoes uncoiling at maturity and reaches the water surface. Because Vallisneria is a dioecious genus renowned for male flower-epihydrophily (Du and Wang, 2014), the fruit numbers were controlled by the male individuals in the mesocosms, which differed from the O. alismoides bisexual flowers. 1992) , Potamogeton pectinatus (Philbrick and Anderson 1987) , Halodule pinifolia, Halophila ovalis, Ruppia maritima and Lepilaena cylindrocarpa (Cox and Knox 1989). (a) Epihydrophily ( on surface of water e.g. 15. (ii) Hypohydrophily:- When the pollination takes– place inside the water is called hypohydrophily. and carpels are found in different flowers. Hydrophilous plants, like anemophilous flowers are characterised by floral envelops which are highly reduced or even absent. Epihydrophily is uncommon in angiosperms. These two species have two-dimensional, surface pollination. 3. Vallisneria) (b) Hypohydrophily ( inside water) e.g. Pollination in Vallisneria spiralis: It is a dioecious, submerged and rooted hydrophyte. a. Epihydrophily: Pollination occurs at the water level. It is also called self-sterility. epihydrophily embraces at least two rather dissim-ilar subtypes. The female plant bears solitary flowers which rise to the surface of water level using a long coiled stalk at the time of pollination. Examples: Vallisneria spiralis, Elodea. It is commonly found in plants like Zostera(Manne angiosperm), Ceratophyllum and Vallisneria. Specific gravity of pollen grains is equal to that of water, so they float on water. Pollen grains are without exine and often elongated. 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