The Mahayana texts Dasa-Cakra-ksti-garbhanama-Mahayana sutra contains ten wheels or chakra relating to Buddha’s turning of the wheel of law during the five rough periods of the kali era. Buddhist principles are based on the basic idea of cause and effect, also known in eastern philosophy as karma. With training, we can rid ourselves of negative ones … If a violent act starts from one side it must be subdued from the other and not aggravated. As we see, the object of war has never been reckoned as destruction or fame of victory; it has been calculated to aim at the protection of the people’s interest and rights. It evinces that the Buddha greatly encouraged the right of speech and discussion in every field, and admitted criticisms without an unpleasant feeling. In Mahayana bodhisattvacarya every individual has his proper place and rights on a reciprocal basis. As much as I had read on the subject, however, I struggled to find much that was original or consistently Buddhist in my readings of political philosophy. Such must be the means of punishment to which parents take recourse to punish their children. The text expounds social economy, leadership, judiciary, eight considerations for the head of government and administrators, war of defence, and allied subjects. A Buddhist political philosophy, applying the theory of karma, would suggest that all these causes and conditions play a role in the rise of racism. A Supplication Prayer requesting His Eminence Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche to kindly live long. The “Prajna Paramita” means attainment of wisdom to enable a person to become capable of understanding the rights and wrongs and to practice well for society. way, guided by their Buddhist principles. ... See MoreSee Less, Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Linked InShare by Email, The importance of DedicationThereafter, straight away after having done a virtuous action—be it reciting of daily prayers, or praise to Tara—to do dedication of the merits arising from that virtuous action is important. If it is for flourishing fourth of Buddha’s teachings, that in this specific country and area may Buddha’s teachings flourish forth, and, if it is especially for a person to recover from an illness, one dedicates for the recovery; and, if it is for recovery of sentient beings in general from the problems of a pandemic, a conflict, or a famine, one dedicates for recovery from them, thinking that the merits are for those purposes. Violence is the root cause to social disturbance and misery, and the elimination of violence at the individual stage automatically builds up the growth of the social structure. Its political philosophy therefore would seek to create a politics (whether Democrat or Republican, Liberal or Conservative) that alleviates the distress of the people through morally skillful means, rather than pandering to their greed, hatred, and delusion. [Jenta:] I was. To sum up, the Buddha did not leave any corner untouched in the fields of social economy and political philosophy. At the third stage effort with the aforementioned principles calls for the application of skill and bravery in war operations with a defensive purpose. The Buddhist path combines both philosophical reasoning and meditation. These are: (1) the citizens of the state should be considered like his own sons and daughters; (2) miscreants should be considered as patients: (3) suffers should be considered as objects of love and kindness; (4) well-off persons should be considered from the angle of rejoicement; (5) the enemy should be considered in such a way so as to eliminate the cause of enmity; (6) friend should be considered in such a way as to promote their genuine interest; (7) wealth should be considered as a medicine of life; and (8) the self should be considered from the angle of selflessness. This includes self-enlightenment, becoming a Saint, and achieving nirvana. Leading a disciplined life can ensure that suffering is kept to a minimum. He died at the age of 80, around 487. The Buddha further recommends a man who is an assiduous worker with considerable industry, impartial judgement, good physique, education, wisdom, personality and compassion to be elected as the head of the state. It is not surprising, therefore, that the latest theories of socialism and democracy seem to have live wires in the original thoughts of the Buddha. It is explained thus: the citizens of the state is under the danger of foreign occupation, so the self is compelled to undergo a sin, and with a view to saving the people at large, a few persons should be ready to bear the results of sinful acts. In Mahayana Buddhism philosophy, it is all about giving your being for others. For example, if it is for one’s kind Main Teacher (Root Guru) to live long, then one dedicates for longevity of Teacher’s lifespan. Weâre the Shambhala Sun Foundation. The sutra is remarkable for containing a safeguard measure against the livelihood of incapable people, so that their interest may not be indiscriminately crushed by employing only educated and able persons. Buddha’s Dharma-pravartana has been compared to administrations of the state. However persons who are not industrious, shirk work, and unkind by nature, who do evil and are engaged in anti-social activities, should be punished according to their offence. Politics and Buddhism might seem antithetical, but in truth Buddhist practice is inherently political. In one Jataka, the Buddha speaks about the obligations of a ruler (dasa-raja-dhamma) as including personal integrity, moral character, a concern for the welfare of all beings, non-violence, and non-opposition (avirodha) to the will of the people. To paraphrase Damien Keown, living in accordance with dharma and implementing its requirements (outlined in the Buddhaâs Eightfold Path) leads to happiness and fulfillment among individuals and communities; neglecting or violating dharma leads to suffering. That is the reason it is said the merits (‘roots of virtues’) of bodhicitta cannot be measured. ༄༅།། ཇི་ལྟར་གསོལ་འདེབས་ཞུས་པ་བཞིན་སློབ་དཔོན་ཟམ་གདོང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་མཆོག་གིས་ ༢༠༢༠ ཕྱི་ཟླ་ ༡༢ ཚེས་ ༡༠ དགའ་ལྡན་ལྔ་མཆོད་ཆེན་མོའི་ཉིན་རྗེ་ཙོང་ཁ་པ་བློ་བཟང་གྲགས་པའི་རྣམ་ཐར་མདོར་བསྡུས་ཤིག་གསུངས་པ།As requested, on 10 December 2020, on the Anniversary of Jey Tsongkhapa's Parinirvana, Prof. Samdhong Rinpoche gave a brief talk on Jey Tsongkhapa's liberating life and teachings. Every socialistic and democratic principle in the realm of politics and socio-economic matter finds its origin in the Buddhist sutras, with his divergence that the basic social philosophy in Buddhism was comparatively larger and definitely more purposeful than the social philosophies applied by modern socialists. Shivasūtras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity; Text of the Sūtras and the Commentary Vimarshinī of Kshemarāja. The Bhikshu and Bhikshuni sanghas were a constant source of inspiration and happiness to the lay society. We have reached a point in the West where we risk losing our sanity and stability as a civilization in a world seething with greed, hatred, and delusion. Another accusation or rather criticism of Buddhism is that the Tibetan Buddhists are afraid of adapting to a modern way of life. Such an act, termed as “veto” in modern phraseology, is vital for social practices and to avoid the system of supersession of the minority by the majority. The wheel examples provide great motivation for good administration of the state. And so did temporal power grow side by side with Buddhism in Tibet in the time of Srong-tsen Gampo (Srong-btzan sGampo) Tri-song Deu-tsen (Khri-srong Ide-btzan) and Ralpachen, the three greatest kings of Tibet, who expanded their empires and also had rapid social and economic progress. Wisdom is different from knowledge. 5. death) of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia. In additions to these, the rules of conduct in Mahayana bodhisattva Vinaya were not limited to non-violence, but included the duty of bestowing happiness and benefit to others. The king was very much under the influence of the Buddha, who could have easily stopped the king from war. These developed not by force but voluntarily. Timely means the time or situation in which the judiciary is capable of awarding punishment, and that the person is capable of bearing it. 154), the Buddha says that the moral character of a ruler determines the moral character of society and a decline in a rulerâs moral character results in societyâs moral decline. drunk with the intoxication. In general, whatever activity we do, we do so with a motive preceding it, that even with us ordinary persons the actions done without a motive preceding are very few. Since the establishment of Buddhism no social disharmony or common suffering was found till the country was swallowed up by the Red Chinese in recent decades. And it turns out that they are pretty similar to Buddhist beliefs. This is all in the interest of the state, upholding its laws and peace. From the July 2004 Lion’s Roar, Here are eight views on how to move society along the path to freedom from political suffering. Trumpâs remark creates a limited âselfâ based on the idea of race, ethnicity, and place of origin. Second, in Buddhist political philosophy, politics would be a moral undertaking for any leader. 3] JATAKs. In practical terms, wisdom comes at the end of one's practice of the path. It has become a Dharma practice to be a cause for attaining liberation. He should think thoroughly upon the past, present and future, and chalk out a policy for the sustenance of the state. Free will in social planning and the adoption of faith is by far the most significant trait in Buddhism which makes us justly feel proud and distinguished from other societies. He lives in Vancouver, Canada. The elementary sila (discipline), common to the lay people, deal with moral discipline which prohibits the ten evil deeds and stresses non-violence to sentient beings. Execution and impalement are strictly prohibited in this code of punishment. Be it talking, be it walking, there would be each a motive preceding, thinking, “I’ll do this”. By contrast, most modern Western political philosophies construe politics as âmorally neutralâ based purely on a leaderâs utilitarian considerations of power and public good. This contrasts with the positivist view in modern Western political philosophy. Buddhism offers one way of life to Bhikkhus and another to lay followers. The sutra has indications for punishment of defaulters by compassion and not by anger or with a spirit of retribution. Based on my studies of Buddhism, law, and politics, I would propose the following four key components of a prospective Buddhist political philosophy. on 19th August 2016, at Dharamsala. The “Arya Mahaparinirvana-nama sutra” specially reiterates the strongest arguments of the disciples with the Buddha, which I feel are more drastic than today’s parliamentary debates. Wisdom is somewhat intrinsic which is mainly obtained through cultivation and mental development/meditation. His ideas were as dynamic and revolutionary as original. They do fight, but not with weapons and bombs. INDIVIDAUL AND SOCIETY According to the Sravakayana School, social practices may be grouped into two: one group of practices common to the laity, and another group for monks who have renounced worldly pleasures. At the first stage the first effort is aimed at bringing about a compromise between the contending or belligerent parties without bloodshed, even though both sides may have to give up some of their interests. From the Buddhist point of view, a political philosophy that ignores the natural law and disregards principles like the interdependence and unity of life would only harm individuals and communities. It has become better than that of small capable person’s. Purposeful signifies a marked improvement in the actions of the criminal by the inflicted punishment. For instance, the election of Donald Trump would be explained historically as an example of different causes and conditions working together: a particular political system (the two-party system, the American electoral college), a particular society (which has experienced economic recession and the decline of the middle class since 9/11) and a particular culture (which celebrates social media celebrities). Similarly, political thinkers could only conceive of a temporary well being or happiness, while the Buddha showed the means to achieve permanent success. After a sheltered and princely upbringing, Siddhartha was shocked by a sudden encounter with old age, sickness, and death. When the Third Reich declared that it was legal to discriminate against German Jews, Germany disregarded whether the Jews were subject to any higher law such as the natural rights of a human being. He had compassion for the black man to save his from the great sinful act which he planned to perform, by which he would incur the consequence of the sinful deed, and for the other passengers to save their lives and wealth. Buddhist Principle that Shows There Is No Fixed Self or “I” (And How That Can Make You The Happiest Person in the World) What’s the first thing you say when you meet someone new? In case of any danger of outside infiltration or natural calamities the duty of the state becomes still more onerous. The roots of these are ignorance and anger which must be rooted out by the Buddha’s doctrine of compassion, loving kindness, tolerance and wisdom. In one sense all Buddhists are courageous warriors. The core of Buddha’s philosophy, as presented in the earliest extant texts, is an examination of the human condition through a carefully developed analysis of the causes of our suffering, and a path for alleviating it in the form of practical advice that draws only on our own resources and abilities. As regards individual rights, the prohibition of the ten evil deeds is mainly based upon the protection of everyone’s rights in society. The Middle Way, which is discovered by the Buddha before his enlightenment, is one of the most important supervisory principles of Buddhist practice. We [...], © 2020 Lion's Roar | Email: [email protected] | Tel: 902.422.8404 | Published by Lion's Roar Foundation, Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window). Since it was done for next life it has become Dharma (spiritual practice) in nature but of the lowest level of Dharma, the smallest of meanings. The positivist view is a secular and rational view of the world that says that all things in the world can be observed factually without resorting to explanations of first or âultimateâ causes like God or nature. The “dana paramita” may be taken to mean equal distribution of wealth. Four years had passed since 9/11, and I was in my second year of law school. They are termed “proper”, “timely”, ”purposeful”, “soft”, and “amiable”. After Buddha's death, some of his followers had some differences of opinion which eventually led to their breaking away and forming separate kinds of Buddhism. 2. These deeds in themselves are definitely violent to others, but under special circumstances Buddha permitted the bodhisattvas to do these acts for the well being of all social creatures. The sense of sacrifice gradually assumed larger dimension from these different vehicles. The text sheds important light on how to act in the event of war. In the fourth wheel of the state the Buddha states that if the people of the state are divided by beliefs of different gods and goddesses or religions and philosophies of life, the state must attempt to bring all of them together and put them in true cooperation in order to avoid strife and dissension. Prajna is rega… The second wheel of the state turns to the duties of the leader. In the ecclesiastical organisation if a single individual, in the jurisdiction of a particular sangha, did not turn up personally or surrendered his right to vote, no sangha-karma could be performed even if thousands of monks had assembled for that purpose. The War on Terror was in full fury. As John Rawls has emphasized, the basic structure of society must be a central focus of any theory of justice (Rawls 1971, 9–11). Buddhist teachings can be understood and tested by anyone. The famous jatakas story of sarthavaha sattavavana calls forth our attention in this regard. Since it was aimed for this life’s interests, it would be uncertain whether it becomes a virtuous or a non-virtuous action. SACRIFICE FOR SOCIAL HARMONY The last wheel states that a state conforming to the dictates of the above wheels is respected by all mankind. It is a pity that modern thinkers hardly ever realize or grasp the deep significance inherent in the Buddha’s thoughts on socio-economic problems, which are as sublimes as those on the human consciousness. You say “Hi, my name is…..” Whatever comes after that phrase is your identity. Soft must be the nature of punishment: it should on no account be harsh. For example, A Praise to Twenty-one Taras is a Mantra (Tantric) text, so it is not only a great vehicle text, it is of the Mantra path within the great vehicle. Yet the result of that would be merely to attain liberation for oneself, and, it has become one that would have the danger of the merits becoming destroyed before attaining liberation. However, with a war in the offing there should always be a consideration as to how to minimise the sequel of carnage and loss of lives on both sides. Our sincere wish is that these Buddhist teachings, guided practices, and stories can be a balm in these difficult times. The problem with positivism is that it reduces politics to a mere function of power without considering any higher principles, such as morality. In the battle itself one’s own side should be considered stronger than that of the opponent, and confidence in victory must be entertained. The record of the wheels is further elaborated in several other Mahayana texts. The Buddha enunciated that the absence of the state was tantamount to social disorder and it was thus incumbent upon the people to elect their administrator. Randeep Purewall is a lawyer and a writer. The “ksanti paramita” means tolerance of violence and criticisms. The first wheel describes the method of choosing the head of the state or the administrator. This shows that if Buddha opposed war he would not have sent any monks to the king’s military camp for their moral support. Political candidates who reject racism and nationalism, who advocate for the noninjury of the Earth and all beings, who view our resources not as individual possessions but as goods to share, and who are in favor of the guarantee of basic resources to all—money, food, medicine, shelter, education—are surely advocating action in harmony with the traditional, nonsectarian essence of the … In other words the Buddhist faith hinders social progress; it is reactionary. Recently, science has found some interesting principles of happiness. The “Virya paramita” means to work incessantly for social wellbeing. WAR FOR DEFENCE It is considered by Indian thinkers to be a practical discipline, and its goal should always be to improve human life. From good deeds come good results. The other sources are JATAKs. Buddhism and military strength held fast in the time of Asoka in India. It was 2005. Can you lend your support to Lionâs Roar at this critical time? No one is free from the pandemicâs impact, including Lionâs Roar. This is the wonderful aspect of Buddhism-a respect for religion freedom of the individual. With this end in view, he laid down principles, which are well balanced and broad- based. The fact is that these misconceptions are based on prejudiced beliefs and a disparaging study of Buddhism. When reciting such a text, it should be done so with a motive of enlightenment mind, as Kadampa teachers have said, “It is not enough for the teaching to be of the great vehicle, the person must have become inclusive to the great vehicle”. The Tibetan is not afraid of applying or assimilating a new method, to a Tibetan; appear to have their moorings in the age-old principles of Buddhism. According to that view, all existence â individual and collective â is imperfect. Buddhism - Buddhism - Historical development: The Buddha was a charismatic leader who founded a distinctive religious community based on his unique teachings. A Buddhist theory of justice must also focus on the role of government and the basic civil and economic structure of society. In the eight wheels the Buddha warns the head of the state to always recollect his position, his early life, and the conditions of his birth, childhood and education in consonance with his experience about men and matters in the state. The sutra says the head of a state or government should always have eight considerations in mind. ECONOMY, LEADERSHIP AND JUDICIARY According to the sutra cited above, an unequal distribution of wealth and income among the family members and among owners and workers, the landholders and labourers, would be classed in the observance of wrong livelihood. Moreover as soon as any boy or girl of the family became a monk or nun, he or she had to renounce every right of property and wealth which the person had in the family. This analysis and advice is grounded entirel… Also, there is no increasing of that merit, for the motive was for merely the next life’s interests.Now, with the third person, if the person has recited the Praise by having seen all samsara as in the nature of suffering, and aiming for attaining merely liberation [from samsara], sorrow transcendence nirvana, then it has become a spiritual practice of the intermediate capable person. The Buddha asked all his followers not to take his word as true, but rather to test the teachings for themselves. If the motive is without the presence of enlightenment mind, and if the practice has become that of small and intermediate capable persons’—even though the teaching is of the great vehicle—then it would be a great loss.One needs to, thus, examine one’s motive prior to doing any virtuous action, and set the motive. Achieving social well being Wildmind, who looked at scientific research published by Yes Magazine Episcopal. 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